Preparation of Manuscript:
Manuscripts should be written in English. Submission should be typed double-spaced, on one side of A4 paper. The top, bottom and side margins should be 30 mm or. Laser near-letter quality print is essential, and font size 12 of Times New Roman should be used. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page. All measurements must be given in SI units. Abbreviations should be used sparingly and only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation.


Corrected manuscripts:
All edited/reviewed manuscripts must be corrected by the authors(s) and sent back to the Editor within 3 weeks of receipt. In a covering letter, please state clearly and sequentially (one after the other, using the numbering used by the referee(s) how you have addressed the issues raised by the referee(s).  You are free to disagree with the referee.  In such a case state convincing reasons to support your stance.

Manuscripts on Disk:
Electronic manuscripts have the advantage that there is no need for retyping of text, thereby avoiding the possibility of introducing errors and resulting in reliable and fast publication.
For the initial submission of article for consideration, hardcopies are sufficient. For the processing of accepted papers, electronic version is preferred. After the final acceptance of your article for publication, submit your disk plus two, final and exactly matching printed version together. The diskette should be double density (DD) or high density (HD) diskettes and 3.5”. It is important that the file is saved in the native format of the word processor programme used. Label the disk with the name of the file, the computer and word-processing package used.

Parts of the manuscript:
Manuscripts generally should be organized in the following order:

  1. Title page, should contain a) title of the paper should be short, informative, clear, descriptive and contain the major key words, b) the full names of the authors and c) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with d) the full postal and E-mail address, and telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript, proofs and requests for offprint should be sent.
  2. Abstract and key words, Articles must have structured abstract that states in 200 words or fewer the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. It should be clear, descriptive and state briefly and specifically what the paper reports, point out new information and indicate the relevance of the work. The abstract could be divided with the headings: Aim, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references. The abstract should be able to stand as an independent entity.
  3. Text, Authors should use subheadings to divide the sections of their manuscript: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion or (Results and Discussion), Acknowledgement, References. .  Social science based articles may include ‘Theoretical framework’ as a heading just before the methods section.

Introduction, The Introduction should be focused and should be limited to the scope, purpose and rationale of the study. Restrict the literature review and other background information to that needed in defining the problem or setting the work in perspective. Literature review should form a separate paragraph(s) under the Introduction section, there should be no heading or subheading captioned “Literature Review”.
Materials and Methods, Limit information on Methods to what is needed in judging whether the findings are valid.. These should include materials studied, description of areas, methods, techniques, description of experimental materials/units, climate in field studies and statistical analysis.
Acknowledgements, The source of financial grants and other funding should be acknowledged, and those who contributed substantially to the scientific and technical aspects of the work.
Tables, Insert each Table in text on the top of the page, or one or more Tables could be placed on a page provided the bottom margin is not less than 1 inch. Number all Tables consecutively with Arabic numerals and refer to them in text sequentially. Each Table must have a caption on top of the Table such captions must be succinct and self explanatory. As much as possible Tables should be self explanatory. Footnotes to tables should be in italics. Tables should not have vertical lines. The “headers” and the “footers” should be the only horizontal lines. The “headers” and the “footer” should be the only horizontal lines. Avoid splitting one Table into 2 pages.
Figures, All maps, drawings, graphs, photographs etc are figures. (Do not use the term plate to refer to photographs). All figures (abbreviated E.g) must be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and must be referred to in text sequentially. Insert Fig inside text, or place one or more Fig. on one page if they (it( will fill the whole page. Each Fig. must have a self explanatory caption at its bottom. Line drawings must be made with black with or computer generated in black and printed with a lasser printer using the highest resolution available.

  1. All publications cited together in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript.
  2. In the text refer to the authors’ name (without initial) and year of publication.
  3. If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors, the name of the first author should be used followed by “et al.” This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list, names of the first author and all co-authors should be detailed.
  4. Arrange your references in alphabetical order according to surname of the authors. References with the same authors are listed in the following order.
  5. Papers with one author only are listed first in reverse chronological order i.e. beginning with the earliest papers.
  6. Papers with two authors (dual authorship) would fellow and are listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the second author.
  7. Papers with 3 or more authors appear after the dual authored papers and are arranged chronologically.
  8. Journal names where articles are cited should be written out in full in reference and in full.

Reference citations should be done as follows with all Journal names given in full and in Italics.